Domingues da Silva and Badi Bukas-Yakabul studies the origins of the liberated Africans from Cuba and Sierra Leone during the nineteenth century. The paper examines the records made available on the African Origins Portal (http://www. african-origins. org) in order to estimate the number of enslaved Africans from the region of Angola along with their ethno-linguistic distribution. Challenging previous studies about the origins of slaves in that geographical area, the authors show that only approximately 21 percent of the captives embarked in Angola during the nineteenth century came from the zone beyond the Kwango River.
Because slavery was a lucrative institution, Brazilian ad Cuban slave owners and planters greatly resisted the end of slavery. 11 11 See SCHIMIDT-NOWARA, Christopher. Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press 1999, chapter 7 and SCHIMIDT-NOWARA, Christopher. Slavery, Freedom, and Abolition in Latin America and the Atlantic World. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2011, p. 90-91. Such opposition led to the adoption of gradual emancipation, which except for the Dominican Republic, was also the chosen approach by the local elites in all other Latin American societies.
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1790-1850. São Paulo: Editora Hucitec, 2010; COWLING, Camillia. Conceiving Freedom: Women of Color, Gender, and the Abolition of Slavery in Havana and Rio De Janeiro. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013; GRADEN, Dale Torston. Disease, Resistance, and Lies: The Demise of the Transatlantic Slave Trade to Brazil and Cuba. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014 e PARRON, Tâmis Peixoto, A política da escravidão na era da liberdade: Estados Unidos, Brasil e Cuba, 1787-1846, Tese (Doutorado em História Social), Faculdade de Letras e Ciências Humanas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2015. This new wave of studies comparing Brazil and Cuba is well justified. Colonized by the Portuguese and the Spanish, both societies were marked by the presence of the Catholic Church.
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Cuba passed the Patronato Law in 1880 which determined the end of slavery and replaced it with an eight-year period of apprenticeship. Therefore, freed slaves were renamed patrocinados, whereas the former masters were named patronos. 13 13 On the limitations of this law see SCOTT, Rebecca. Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labor, 1860-1899. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2000, p.
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Exploring new archival sources and diving deeply on the history of West Africa to examine slavery in Bahia, da Silva's article contributes to a long-standing tradition of studies that examined this region over the last six decades. Exploring the early nineteenth-century slave trade to Cuba, Michael Zeuske looks at the intertwined trajectories of an African-born enslaved man and a European slave merchant. Roberto (or Robin or Robert) Botefeur was born in the hinterland of Gambia, where he was enslaved when he was still a young man.
The legal systems of Latin American colonial societies, including Brazil and Cuba, largely relied on Roman Law, dimension that impacted enslaved populations in similar ways. In the two societies, slaves were able to obtain manumission and were allowed to purchase their liberty. Slaves went to court to petition their masters in order to obtain their freedom and also to denounce bad treatment and sexual abuse.
1 1 RODRIGUES, Jaime. De costa a costa: escravos, marinheiros e intermediários do tráfico negreiro de Angola ao Rio de Janeiro, 1780-1860. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2005; HAWTHORNE, Walter. From Africa to Brazil: Culture, Identity, and an Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1830. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010; SWEET, James H. Domingos Álvares, African Healing, and the Intellectual History of the Atlantic World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011; FERREIRA, Roquinaldo Amaral, Cross-Cultural Exchange in the Atlantic World: Angola and Brazil During the Era of the Slave Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Likewise, after its first legal prohibition in 1831, Brazil imported approximately 480, 000 slaves. 10 10 For estimates, see the Transatlantic Slave Trade Database: Voyages, www. slavevoyages. org. In both societies slave owners and planters obtained important gains. Slavery was a profitable institution that greatly contributed to the development of capitalism in Europe and the Americas during the nineteenth century.
Slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade in Brazil and Cuba from an Afro-Atlantic PerspectiveThis text presents the seven articles that forms the dossier, stressing its common bases and some of its particularities. Keywords:Slavery; Brazil; Cuba Este texto apresenta os sete artigos que compõe o dossiê homônimo, destacando suas bases comuns e algumas das particularidades de cada um. Palavras-chave:Escravidão; Brasil; Cuba A growing number of studies comparing slavery in the Americas were published over the last two decades. This recent scholarship has greatly stressed the importance of studying the role of Africa in the Atlantic slave trade, in order to understand its dynamics and to grasp the ways enslaved Africans contributed, economically, politically, and culturally, to the construction of the Americas.
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8 8 On Cuba this point is emphasized by ZEUSKE, Michael. Amistad: A Hidden Network of Slavers and Merchants. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2015. On Brazil, see CHALHOUB, Sidney. A força da escravidão: ilegalidade e costume no Brasil oitocentista. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2012. Between 1820, when the slave trade to Cuba was prohibited for the first time, and 1867, when its ban was effectively enforced, approximately 499, 580 enslaved Africans disembarked in the Spanish colony. 9 9 On the slave trade to Cuba, see BERGAD, Laird W., Fe Iglesias García, and María del Carmen Barcia. The Cuban Slave Market, 1790-1880. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Brought to the coast, he was sold into slavery to a German medical doctor and slave merchant, named Daniel Botefeur, who had been living in Bunce Island, Sierra Leone, for several years. In 1815, master and slave moved to Cuba, where they joined a community composed of men and women of various status and nationalities. Navigating the intersections of micro-history and macro-history, Zeuske demonstrates how, despite their different stories, these two men can be defined as cosmopolitans of the "hidden" Atlantic world. The paper "From Beyond the Kwango: Tracing the Origins of Slaves Leaving Angola, 1811-1848" by Daniel B.
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Moreover, despite their different sizes, both in Brazil and Cuba, like in Mexico, Peru, and Argentina, slavery was present not only in plantation zones, but also in urban areas. In Brazil and Cuba, the slave trade engendered great profits to slave merchants, who continued to import slaves after its legal abolition.
7 7 On warfare in the Bight of Benin and in Bahia, and Cuba see BARCIA, Manuel. West African warfare in Bahia and Cuba: soldier slaves in the Atlantic world, 1807-1844. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, and REIS, João José, Rebelião escrava no Brasil: a história do levante dos malês em 1835. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2003.
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